Features of Java Language
Features of Java Language: Java is not only a Programming Language but it is also a Platform. When Sun Microsystems introduced Java to the world in November 1995, the company’s co-founder Bill Joy gave the following definition of Java
Java is a Small, Simple, Safe, Object-Oriented, Interpreted or Dynamically Optimized, Byte-Coded, Architecture-Neutral, Garbage-Collected, Multi-threaded Programming Language with a Strongly Typed Exception-Handling Mechanism for Writing Distributed, Dynamically Extensible Programs . These properties of Java are also called features of Java .
Small and Simple
Java is a small and simple language that can be learned easily. Java has been designed in such a way that any programmer can learn it easily and develop maximum efficient program even without knowing the Internal Functionality of Computer Programming.
If a programmer has some knowledge of any programming language, then he can learn to develop Window Based Application and Internet Based Distributed Application (Applets) very easily and quickly .
Java was a very small language when it was first released. But today it has become a very big language and is capable of developing all types of applications efficiently. This language is inspired by many other languages like C / C ++, Simula, Ada, but most of its Coding is similar to C ++ language.
Therefore a C / C ++ Programmer has no difficulty in learning Java. Good features of C and C ++ have been used in this language, except for Confusing and Typical Features of these languages, more simple concepts have been incorporated in their place. Concepts like C ++ Operator Overloading and Pointer have been left in Java, while Advance Technique like Multi-threading has been added.
Everything in Java is defined as Object and Class , which is called Object Oriented Programming System . OOPS provides us with features such as Abstraction and Encapsulation, Polymorphism and Inheritance, whereby we can logically organize a problem in a computer in the same way that the problem is actually or Physically Organized in the Real World. In Java, many of the necessary classes are already received in the Forms of Packages, which we can use as soon as possible without rewrite.
Programs on Java are also Execute on Network ie Web . Hence it is called Distributed Language . Distribution means that Java programs can run on any platform. We know that many types of Operating Systems are available today and different people use different Operating Systems according to their need and desire. A Linux operating system uses a Linux or a MacOS or an OS / 2. All these are called different platforms.
If we create a program on Windows Based Computer in a language like “C” or Visual Basic , then those programs run smoothly on all computers that use Windows. But if you try to execute these programs on Linux or MacOS, then these programs are not executed on that operating system. For these platforms, the program has to be compiled back on computers with the same platform.
This is not the case with Java. In Java, we create and compile programs on any platform, those programs execute equally on all other platforms. That is, Java programs can be distributed on different platforms. Therefore Java is called Distributed Language .
Java has been designed in such a way that we can develop such applications in it, which can run on the Internet. It is Ability in this language that it can share both data and programs on different computers on the Internet.
Java Applications can access and open Remote Objects as easily as they open and access Objects of Local Computer. Java provides such networking facilities that different programmers at different Remote Locations can work simultaneously on the same single project at the same time.
Compiled and Interpreted
Programs in most other languages are either Compile or Interpreted. But Java programs are also Compile and Interpreted. Java programs are first compiled. After Java compile the program does not directly convert to Machine Language, rather it converts between Source Code and Machine Code, which is called Bytecodes . When these Bytecodes have to run on any platform, then these Bytecodes are interpreted according to that computer’s platform and are completely converted to Machine Code according to that machine and can be executed on that platform.
Robust and Safe
Errors in Java programs are less likely than other languages. Therefore Java’s programs are called Robust . In its Compiler , many Built-In methods have been developed to handle Errors generated in different ways and Java has been designed in such a way that once a correctly compiled program ever comes in error There is no possibility. All the errors that have to come, they all come at the time of program development and testing, which are handled.
There are various data types checking for different types of errors at both Compile Time and Runtime locations . It automatically releases the memory taken by different types of objects, so we don’t have to worry about whether we destroy all the unrequited objects and release their memory.
Java also provides facility for Exception Handling, which we can use to trap Serious Errors and Solve them, which further protects our program. When we talk about Internet, then security is quite nostalgic. Java itself deals with different types of Memory Management and Memory Access, so it never allows to access Memory and Stored Data in it incorrectly. Because of this , there is no possibility of Applet coming to Virus in a computer.
Since Java does not have pointers that can access Directly Memory, we cannot directly access the memory of any computer. Also, Java Applets never access the resources of a Client Computer, so Java Applets can never harm the Clients’ Computer or its data.
Architecture Neutral / Platform Independent / Portable / Byte Coded
Bytecodes of Java can run on different types of Processors and Operating Systems equally. Hence it is called Architecture Neutral or Portable . Java programs have to develop only once. Once developed, it can be run on any platform on any computer.
Even if a change is made in the Operating System, System Resources or Processor, we do not need to make any kind of change in the Java program. This is the main reason for Java being the most popular, due to which we use Java for Internet Programming to develop applications running on the World Wide Web and to work on the World Wide Web by interconnecting different computers. Let’s use such programs.
We can download Java Applet from Remote Computer and then run it on our Computer. With this type of facility, a user receives various types of applications and Applets at his home, which he wants to use.
Java is portable in two ways: one generates Java Compiler Byte Codes Instructions , which can be implemented on any computer and the other is not dependent on Java’s Primitive or Basic Data Types Machine, but on Java Platform. . That is, the size of all data types of Java is the same on any compute, whether we use the Java program on Pentium Computer, whether on AMD.
Java does not provide a programmer with the facility to manage memory, but does memory management itself as per the requirement. Therefore, there is no possibility of loss of any other data during memory management by the programmer. So this language is more secure or Secure Language than languages like “C” and “C ++”.
Java’s programs run in Interpreted Mode, but still Java’s speed and performance are very good compared to other Interpreted Based Languages. Hence it is called High Performance Language .
Multithreaded and Interactive
Java provides the facility that different parts of the same software program can be run simultaneously at the same time. Hence it is called Multithreaded Programming Language . For example, suppose that we are listening to Audio Sound from a program, as well as using Scroll Bars in the same program. While a Movie Clip is playing on one side in a window, we are also looking for another Movie Clip in the Open Dialog Box to open another Movie Clip. In this way, it is possible to run different parts of the same program simultaneously at the same time due to the multithreaded concept.
Dynamic and Extensible
Multiple Versions of the same Program can be Maintained simultaneously in Java. Hence it is also called Dynamic Language . That is, Java is a Dynamic Language. Required Classes for a Program in Java can be linked to Java during the run of the program and as soon as the work of that class ends, the class releases itself from memory. This process is called Dynamic Process .
Java can also determine by a query which class link it is getting in the run time of the program. Also, it can be linked to any Dynamic Class or Dynamic Link Library in the Run Time of the program and can get the Run Time features. This process is also called Dynamic Linking .
Java also allows us to use other Languages Methods in Java. These Methods are called Native Methods and they do their work by being dynamically linked in the run time of the program. That is, we can increase or extend the capabilities of the Java program by using the features of other languages in Java. This process is called Extensibility of Java .
There are several types of Java programs:
- Applications – These are programs that do not require a browser to execute. They are Stand Alone and can be run on any computer. They can be run at Command Prompt.
- Applets – These are programs that need a Browser to run. These programs run on web pages. An Applet Program never accesses the resources of a Local Machine.
- Servlet – These programs are written to increase the functionality of Web Servers. They do not have a GUI.
- Packages – This is a collection of Java Classes that can be easily reused in any other Java program.
The Object Oriented Programming System is an exceptional but very powerful way of doing programming. A computer program in OOP is defined as a group of objects in which all objects can interact. That is, all objects can transact their information among each other.
In OOPS, everything in the world is considered an object . Suppose a Worker Object takes the Money Object from the CompanyFunds Object and submits it to its own BankAccount Object. If another Worker Object uses the DoublecheckFund Object then the Polish Object is called.
The biggest feature of a Java program, if any, is that Java programs can be executed on World Wide Web Pages. These programs are called Applets . Before Java, various web pages were written in HTML format. These web pages were such that in which click on the hyperlink of the page you want to see and if you want to see another page, click on its hyperlink and keep moving forward.
Whereas the Java Applet that runs on Web Pages provides a better experience. In this, the web page dynamically updates according to the user’s response. Like today we see on many TV channels where any question is asked and people send SMS and tell their side. As people keep sending SMS, the number of SMS also varies. This work is done dynamically which is possible only due to Java.
Today the user can interact with various types of web pages available on the Internet due to Java. If you want to take an example of this, then all the work of Share Market is done online. User can get his account information whenever he wants. If he wants to buy a company’s share, he can buy online. As he buys Share, the number of Buyers of that company increases.
Similarly, if Share is sold, then the number of Sellers of the company increases. These changes which occur in the data of web pages are called dynamic changes. That is, the web page updates dynamically or at run time from the user’s interaction. We are getting this kind of Dynamic and Online facility only because of Java.
Although Java seems more important due to Web Based Programs, but it is also a General Purpose Language which is used to develop all kinds of programs. Today, most of the software we see in Mobile is Java based. Games run in mobile are mostly developed in Java.